Bold Content Glossary of Video Production Terms

2D Animation

2D animation has a ‘flat’ style such as the movies “Spirited Away” or “The Lion King”. It makes use of already existing images created with the help of computers and software (Eg. Adobe Photoshop, After Effects etc.). These images will gain movement across the screen.

Within 2D animation there are many sub categories for example:

Isometric design animation

Collage style

Character animation


Hand painted

Flat design
Mixed with live action



3D Animation

3D animation makes use of the three dimensions in order to make objects come alive on screen. This is the typical style of animation that Pixar uses in their movies, such as “Toy Story” or “Up”.  Unlike 2D Animation, the images will not be ‘flat’, but have depth on the screen.

Please watch the following video for an example of 3D Animation.

Rotoscoping can be a great way to turn live action 3D images into animation. Depth and camera moves can add complexity to what might otherwise be a 2D animation. 

Stop Motion video is also technically 3D animation although when animation companies refer to 3D they normally mean computer generated CGI.

Aerial Photography

Aerial photographs are taken from a very high vantage point. Normally these shots are taken with special equipment, such as drones. Other options include taking a photograph from an actual aircraft or flying objects.

Please watch the following video for an example of Aerial Photography.


Audio Feed

Audio Feeds are a common type of connector that receives audio/visual signals from other electronic equipment. These cables are used to connect our cameras to the main sound desk where we are filming. This way, we can ensure that the sound in the room is identical to the sound received by our equipment and, later on, will be perfect to work with in post-production.


The autocue, also referred to as a teleprompter or prompter, is a device that allows the presenter to read a prepared script. This device is placed in front of the lens making it unseen to the audience, giving the impression the speaker is looking directly into the camera. This is very helpful when long pieces of text need to be shot in one take.

AV Input

AV inputs are a common type of connector that receive audio/visual signals from other electronic equipment. These cables are used to connect our cameras to the main sound desk where we are filming. This way, we can ensure that the sound in the room is identical to the sound received by our equipment and, later on, will be perfect to work with in post-production.


B-Roll refers to footage shot in addition to the main action. The main shot is called A-roll and might be in the form of an interview, vox pop, tutorial etc.

B-roll refers to footage that shows the general atmosphere of the location, event, and shows specific elements of what the interviewee is talking about, establishes the setting of the video etc. These are shots to which the editor can cut to while making the edit.

In our video for the UK Dementia research Institute you can see the A-roll is our interview with the researcher, and the B-roll are the shots of her laboratory.

Call Sheet

A call sheet is a document that is often used by production crews. The document contains all the details the crew will need to know in order to make the shoot happen. It will include information such as contact details, location of the shoot, closest public transport station, closest hospital, the shooting schedule and arrival time etc.


Cine Lenses

Cine Lenses, or cinema lenses, are lenses which are specifically designed to meet the needs of filmmakers. These lenses record continuous motion at a very high quality, which makes them perfect for high quality video production.

Cinema 4D

Cinema 4D is an application developed by MAXON Computer GmbH used for 4D modelling, animation, motion graphic and rendering.



Coloramas are large pieces of white or coloured paper, which can be used in the background of your video. These backgrounds offer a professional and sleek look to your video, in a very convenient and efficient way.

Please refer to the following video for an example of how colorama can be used.


Colour Grading

Colour grading is the process of manipulating colour and contrast in videos to create a stylistic look. Such as making footage appear as if it was filmed in a different environment or change the mood/tone. Attributes such as saturation, black levels and white points can also be adjusted and enhanced.

Please refer to the video for an example of colour grading.



Compositing is the technique of combining multiple layers of images which come from different sources and rendering them into a single still or moving image.


Cutaways refers to footage shot in addition to the main action.

It refers to footage which shows the general atmosphere of the event, shows specific elements of what the interviewee is talking about, establishes the setting of the video etc. These are shots to which the editor can cut to while making the edit.

Director of Photography

A director of photography can be also referred to as a cinematographer; sometimes this term can be shortened as DP or DOP.

A DOP is in charge of the camera and light crews on the set and is responsible for making artistic and technical decisions in regards to the image.

Drone Videos

Drones are flying cameras which can reach very high altitudes and capture incredibly large shots and objects, such as skyscrapers, mountains, large areas of cities, forests, ocean etc. Adding a variety of shot types when used for capturing videos. 

Please watch the following video for an example of Drone Videos.


Editing a video is the process of changing and putting together filmed footage in order to convey a message. This includes actions such as cutting and putting clips together, sound editing, and colour grading.

For further explanation, please watch the following video.


Food Stylist

A food stylist is a person who specialises in arranging food in a manner in which it looks fresh and tasty. This is very important when photographing or videoing food, for a professional looking product.

For a more detailed look into this, please watch the following show reel


FPV Drone Videos

FPV stands for first person view and is a means for a drone pilot to see what the drone sees and fly it in a way that can capture amazing aerial acrobatics.

Here’s an FPV example



A gaffer is the head electrician who is in charge of the execution of the lighting plan for a production.


HMU is the short version of Hair and Make-up. This is a service which is provided on most production sets for the talent. It can vary from very basic and quick, to extremely elaborate and time consuming. 


Hyperlapse is a form of timelapse photography which allows a videographer to create motion shots through moving the camera manually between each shot. Simply, it is individual photos put together to look like a video. Please refer to the following video for an example.


Kinetic Typography

Kinetic Typography is a technical term for ‘moving text’. It is a post production technique which uses 2D animation to bring text to life. The text is animated in such a way that it appears at key moments on the screen and helps evoke emotion.

Live Action

Live action is a cinematography method which uses photography instead of animation. All the image assets will be ‘live’, filmed on-location, without any digital 2D or 3D animation or assets on screen.

Please refer to the following video for a live action video example.


Location Permits

Location permits are documents which production companies can obtain from local, city, or federal governments. These documents give crews permission to film in a certain location and use the footage later on.

Lower Thirds

Lower thirds are a graphic overlay, usually placed in the lower thirds of the screen. More simply put, a lower third is a text overlay on your video, situated in the lower third of the screen.

Maya 3D

Maya 3D is a leading 3D animation software which enables professionals to create high quality three-dimensional (3D) cinematic animations.

Motion Graphics

Motion Graphics are digital illustrations, footage or animation which give motion on screen. Simply, they are animated graphic designs. They create the illusion of rotation and movement and are usually combined with audio elements for emphasis.

Please refer to the following video as an example.


Motion Shots

Motion shots are shots which capture a motion – an action. These shots capture fast-moving objects, requiring the use of a fast shutter speed.

Please refer to the following video as an example.


Music Licence

A music licence is a document that allows us to use copyrighted music in a video. Music licences are something that has to be purchased in order to use the music track fairly.

Per Diem

Per diem is a latin term meaning ‘per day’. This term refers to the amount of money we offer our employees per day to cover travel and food etc, depending on their services.

Picture Lock

Picture lock is an industry specific term which refers to the stage in post production where all the cutting and placing of the video clips has been approved by the client. The next stages would include sound design and colour grading.

Post Production

Post production refers to the period after filming the footage. Post production services can include editing, 2DAnimation, 3D Animation, VFX, or any other task which involves manipulating the initial footage.

For further explanation, please refer to the following video.



Punch-in is a term which is often used during post production. This term refers to cutting in closer on a certain shot in order to obtain a more zoomed in version of it.

Please refer to the following images for an example of this technique.


A recce refers to visiting a filming location. This happens in pre-production to determine shooting possibilities and identify possible setbacks the crew could encounter on the day of the shoot.

Release Forms

A release form is a legal document between the production company and the talent. This document outlines under what circumstances the footage featuring the talent can be used. Usually the talent signs off the rights for the footage to be used in the agreed upon context.


On set, a runner is a junior person who helps the crew with the shoot. They will be in charge of tasks such as getting release forms signed, providing props, setting up equipment, breaking down equipment, helping with light, helping with sound, helping with filming etc.


Rushes is a term that refers to the ‘raw’ footage. Simplified, rushes will be the very first version of the footage, straight out of the camera, with no alterations whatsoever.

Screen Capture

A screen capture (AKA a screenshot), is a picture of whatever is on your computer’s screen at the time of capture.

Sound Design

Sound design is a broad term that refers to the creation of a soundtrack. Sound design allows us to add sound effects and do a proper ‘mix’ of the dialogue. The difference should not be noticeable to an audience, but it greatly improves the quality of the video.

Sound Person

A sound person is someone who is responsible for the sound while filming. They will be the person who sets up the microphones and checks the sound levels, in order to make sure that the content will be usable in post production.

Stock Footage

Stock footage is pre-existing video clips that can be used again in other films. These clips can be useful, since they offer access to footage that would otherwise be hard and expensive to obtain (e.g. war clips, hospital operation clips).


A storyboard is a graphic representation of the shots in your video. It is chronologically ordered, usually for the purpose of pre-visualising your animation (2D or 3D), or motion graphics.

Style Frame

A style frame is a still image that indicates what the video will look like. They are created by the animator based on the project’s brief and script.

These images give a chance to visualise the style of animation (2D or 3D), or motion graphic. A style frame will show ideas for the colour palette, typography, any character design or motion graphic elements.

Once the style frames have been received, the look of the video can be steered in the preferred direction by providing any feedback to the animator. Any changes can then be incorporated before moving into the animation stage.


Everyone who is on camera is referred to as talent. Whether it is an interview, a training video or an event, people who appear on camera in a central role will fall under this category.

Talking Head

Taking head interviews is the industry terminology for a classic interview set up. A talking head shot is a shot of someone talking in front of the camera, who is generally visible from the chest up – it is the most basic way of framing an interview.

Please refer to the following video for further clarification.



Timelapse is a photographic technique that takes sequences of frames at set intervals. When played back, time lapse videos make it possible to watch a 20 minute sunset in just a few seconds.

Please refer to the following video for an example.


Title Frames

Title frames are shots in your video with only on-screen text against a background. Examples include frames with your company’s logo, the title of the video, interview questions displayed on the full screen and so on.

Please refer to the following images.



VFX or visual effects are a way of mixing live action footage with animated images. These animated images could be 2D animations or 3D animations. This is done in post production by the editor.

Please refer to our showreel for some examples of VFX.


Voice Over Recording

A voice over recording entails hiring a voice over artist to record themselves saying the lines you wish to have in your video. These professionals offer a wide range of tones and styles, helping to give your video the style you desire.


Vox Pop

Vox pop is the short for Vox populi – a Latin term meaning voice of the people. In the industry, these are short interviews with people at events or on the street, answering the same series of questions.

Please refer to the following video as an example.


Whip Pan

A whip pan is a filming technique in which the camera is moved very quickly to one side, making the image blur into streaks. This technique is often used as an in-camera transition, which adds a lot of dynamism in post production.

Please refer to the following video as an example.


White Line Animation

White Line Animation is a style of animation where a white line creates shapes across the screen. This is normally used in combination with live action footage.

Please refer to the following video for a clear example of white line animation.